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30000字硕士毕业论文高二学生英语组块记忆策略的使用

论文类型:硕士毕业论文
论文字数:30000字
论点:英语,调查研究,高二
论文概述:

本研究采用质性研究与量化研究相结合的方式,通过问卷,探讨了高中学生在记忆语块时所采用记忆策略的整体情况,分析了高二学生使用各类、各项一记忆策略的频率和特点

论文正文:

第一章导言

    1.1 BackgroundFor the past three decades, with a rapid progress in the areas of psycholinguisticand cognitive linguistic, much more attention has been focused on lexical chunkslearning which has several app}llatic}i3s iz} o}}e: central }nea}}ing. Meanwhile, with thehelp of computers, researchers are able to collect thousands of actual language data todetect how language is used in practice. Investigations demonstrate that 90% parts ofdaily discourse are composed of relatively fixed prefabricated phrases (Altenberg,1998). These lexical chunks are of characteristic with grammar and lexicon. It is alanguage using routine that can be learned, used and stored in mind as a whole    The main idea of early researchers\" study on lexical chunks (Becker 1975:Pawley and Syder,  1983;Nattinger and DeCarrico 1989;  Sinclair(1991);Lewis1993;Wray,  2002a;Lewis  1993,1997),  can be  summarized,  as  cognitiveScientists Newell(1990)state from the cognitive perspective that chunking is theprinciple for the cognition of human beings. A chunk is a unit of memory whichmakes the sets of chunks stored in memory into a larger chunk. Chunking abilitymeans connecting these structure recursively. It is a pervasive characteristic forhuman memory.    In second language acquisition area, researchers have also found that the bestunit of learning a language is to learn a larger lexical-grammatical unit rather thansolely memorize single vocabulary and grammatical rules. DeCarrico and Nattinger(1992) conclude that earlier researchers have shown the pervasiveness of ritualizationin language behavior. They also mention that human beings are creatures of habit inother respects of the behavior, particularly in the ways to use language, which providea strong support for us to study the function and role that the ritualized bits oflanguage plays in second language acquisition and performing.    Since the trend is that the grammar and lexicon have been treated holistically,and as  Skehan states  formulaic language make a  frame to highlight the newinformation we present (Peter Skehan, 1998). There is a need to highlight the lexicalchunks as well as its memory strategy as great importance in second languagelearning, for it has certainly given us new ways of looking at language, and hasalready  \"revealed  quite  unsuspected  patterns\"  phenomena  which  \"traditionaldescriptive frameworks are normally not able to account for\" (Sinclair 1991 p xvii) bymeans of analyzing enormous quantities of naturally occurring text.    Another concept related to this study is memory strategy which has beendeveloped from learning strategy. It is known to us that language learning has a closerelationship with memory and memory strategy. Almost in the parallel time with theresearches on lexical chunks, a series of studies on memory strategies and memorystrategy use were conducted (Cohen&Aphek,1981;Lambert&Freed,  1982;Oxford, 1982b, 1985b; Nyikos,1987; Nyikos&Oxford,1987; Hague,1987). It hasbeen demonstrated that the memory strategy plays an important role when studentsare learning English materials. Researches to date also lends general support to theclaim that memory strategy impact positively on foreign language learning(O\' Malley&Chamot, 1990; Oxford, 1990; Cohen,20072000), as well as many Chinese scholars (SaiDan&Li Boyue, 2005, Hong ZhenLi Hong 2007).  1.2 Objective and Significance of the Study  According to Becker, one of the earliest people to point out the importancelexical chunks, language communication does not depend on the single word, butthose fixed or semi-fixed prefabricated phrases of varying length. Since then, manyresearches demonstrate that lexical chunks or lexical phrases play an important role inlanguage applications among native English speakers. (Pawley and Syder,  1983;Wray,1992;  Sinclair,1991;Nattinger  and  DeCan-ico,  1992).  In  this  respect,mastering the lexical chunks by memory strategies is an effective way to learnEnglish.    However, for such a long time, grammars and vocabularies has been regardedas separated in traditional Chinese language teaching and learning. And even if thetwo parts can be achieved perfectly, sometimes learners\' performance on languageoutput may not be satisfactory. In the near two decades, scholars in China graduallyintroduce the language chunk theory into domestic foreign language teaching andlearning.  This study combines the two concepts, lexical chunks learning and memorystrategy use together. In review of previous studies in the relative field, we found thatstudies on a specific type of strategies were rather few while the researches onmemorizing lexical chunks were not abundant. To help improve the lexical chunks  References1.Becker, J.(1975). The Phrasal Lericon. In B. Nash-webber and R. Schank (Eds Theoretical Issues in Natural Language Processing.[M]. Cambridge Mass: Bolt, Beranek and Newman.2 .Bolinger, D.(1975). Aspects ofLanguage. (2\"`} ed.).[M]. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.3,Cohen, A. D. 1998. Strategies in  http://sblunwen.com/gzywjxlw/ Learning and Using a Second Langccage. London: Longman.4 .Cook V. Second Language Learning and Language Teaching [M). London: Routledge, 1991:40.5 .Doughty, C. &M. Long. (eds.). The Handbook of Second Language Acquisition  [Z]. Malden, Mass: Blackwell 20036 .Ellis, N. C. Constraactions, chunking, and connectionism: The emergence of second langa}age structure. In C. Doughty&M. Long (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 33一68). Oxford: Blackwe11.20037 .Ellis, N. C. Sequencing in SLA: phonological memory, chunking and points可’ order [J]. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1996 (18).8 .Gass, S. M.&A. Mackay. 2002. Frequency e加cts and second language acquisition [J].Studies in Second Language Acquisition 24: 249-260.9 .Gass, S. M., A. Mackey, M. J. Alvarez-Torres&M. Fernandez-Garcia. 1999. The effects of task repetition on linguistic output [J]. Language Learning 49, 4:  549-581.10.Gu Y.&R. K. Johnson. 1996. hocabulccYy Learning Strategies and  Language Learning Outcomes. Language Learning, (46): 643一679.11 .Hakuta, K. 1974 \'Prefabricated patterns and the emergence of structure in second language acquisition\". Language Learning 24:287-9712 .Hakuta, K. 1976. `Becoming bilingual:a case study of a Japanese child  learning English\'.Language Learning 26: 321一51. 高二学生英语语块记忆策略使用调查研究摘要 5-6Abstract 6Chapter Ⅰ Introduction 9-14    1.1 Background 9-11    1.2 Objective and Significance of the Study 11-12    1.3 Organization of the Thesis 12-14Chapter Ⅱ Literature Review 14-39    2.1 Lexical Chunks 14-29        2.1.1 Definition and Terminology of Lexical Chunks 14-17        2.1.2 Classification of Lexical Chunks 17-20        2.1.3 Nature and Function of Lexical Chunks 20-24        2.1.4 Studies of Lexical Chunks Acquisition Abroad and at Home 24-29    2.2 Memory Process,Learning Strategy and Memory Strategies 29-35        2.2.1 Memory Process 29-32        2.2.2 Language Learning Strategy 32-33        2.2.3 Memory Strategy 33-35    2.3 Relative Researches on the Use of Memory Strategy in Learning LexicalChunks at Home and Abroad 35-39Chapter Ⅲ Research Methodology 39-45    3.1 Research Questions and Hypothesis 39    3.2 Participants 39-41    3.3 Instruments 41-44        3.3.1 Questionnaire 41-43        3.3.2 Interviews 43-44    3.4 Data Collection 44-45Chapter Ⅳ Analyses of the Data 45-66    4.1 The Analysis of Questionnaire 45-62.......................................................................